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    舞动治疗中的催眠与出神

    作者: 莉莉安 更新时间: 2016/6/19 13:08:36 来源: 哦·灵魂网 【字号: 】 浏览
      作者:莉莉安·艾斯本纳克

      Lijian Espenak

      翻译:阿波罗教育翻译组

      Introduction

      导言

      The rediscovery of trance-dance and ecstasy has given birth to a new awareness in dance therapy. We know a great deal about this subject in an historical, cultural way. Anthropology has been giving us more and more information about these cultural ethnic rituals. In fact, as recommend bibliography, one would hardly know where to begin, the material is so extensive.

      催眠舞蹈和出神状态的再发现为舞动治疗注入了新的活力。历史和文化的素材提供了大量关于这个主题的内容。人类学家也一直在为我们提供越来越多关于这些文化的、种族的、仪式的信息。事实上,若要推荐书目,人们往往不知道从哪里开始,因为相关材料浩如烟海。

      The subject is enormous. The more one enters into the core, the greater it becomes. However, it is necessary to be more specific in this discussion. This knowledge can be put to great use in the therapeutic process and for that purpose must be narrowed down to a possible form, one to be comprehended and analyzed, for controlled application in the total picture of the structuring process.

      这是一个宏大的主题。越深入探究它的内核就越发广博。因而在本文的讨论中,有必要更具体更细致一些。这类知识对治疗过程大有裨益。正是为了有助于治疗过程,应该将这个主题尽可能地收窄为一个可被理解、可分析的形式。这也是为有调控地应用到对治疗进行结构化的全过程中。

      The object of my presentation is to focus inward and to regard details in an effort to explain how this “losing of consciousness” actually takes place.

      本文介绍的目标是专注于内在,并注重细节,尝试解释“意识缺失”是怎样发生的。

      In accordance with focusing inward I shall begin with the external occurrances, the process of creating a trance as I have experienced it myself. I shall then describe various uses of trance in actual case presentation. And thirdly, I shall describe the latest findings on the biochemical changes taking place in the body when inducing the change from balance to trance.

      与专注于内在相一致,我将从外显的发生开始叙述,从创造催眠状态的过程开始叙述,正如我自己体验到的那样。然后,我会在实际案例演示中说明催眠的各种用途。接下来,我会分享一些近期的研究成果。这些成果是关于由平衡状态变化到催眠状态时,引发的身体的生物化学变化。

      That which has seemed an inexplainable appearance of spirits and mysticism and has had its place in religion or plain hypnotic states, has been made the object of study by certain psychiatrists, who have been intent on knowing the scientific process.

      那些看似无法解释的精神;神秘主义,却又确在宗教或一般催眠状态中占有一席之地的内容,一直是一些意在探寻科学过程的精神科医生的研究对象。

      This searching for facts does not mean that the emotional aspects of the phenomenon is forgotten. On the contrary, those working in psychotherapy are much aware of how man’s emotional needs must also be satisfied. It is necessary to know, that the phenomena occuring during therapy have scientific bases, there-by enabling the practioner to accept them conscientiously and assuming responsibility for due net effect.

      这种对事实的追寻并不意味着不去注意这一现象的情感层面。正相反,心理治疗工作中更需要清楚地认识到人类的情感需要必须得到满足。非常有必要去了解,在治疗中发生的这一现象有其科学依据的,因此,如果能促成执业者有意识地接受之,并能对此承担责任,就能带来可观的效果。

      Many researchers have investigated the different phenomena of trance and ecstasy. Some call it “Shamanism” and associate it with religious cult, its chief object then being to communicate with the deities, to take religious “flight” to the world beyond. Curt Sachs has written extensively in his book “World History of the Dance” about “Shamanism”, describing its geographic-cultural homes all over the world in ancient times, as well as in present “primitive” societies and old cultures which have maintained their contact with their old priesthood. These societies still exist, for example, in Haiti, or in Ghana, West Africa, where I have been fortunate enough to witness their ceremonies. Therefore, I will not spend much time in quoting Sachs, but will rather describe two of the original experiences I have had myself, and which have awakened my interest in the therapeutic aspects of this form of dance.

      许多研究人员研究了催眠与出神的不同现象。有些人称之为“萨满教”,并将其与宗教崇拜联系在一起,其主要目标是与神灵沟通、带着宗教“飞往”世界之外。Curt Sachs在他的书《世界舞蹈史》中大量涉及“萨满教”,描述其远古时代、遍布全球的地理文化根源,也描述在当代“原初的”社会和古旧文化中的根源,后者指仍然与他们的祭司、仪式保持息息相连的文明。这样的社会在当今时代仍然存在着,例如,在海地、加纳、西非等,在那里,我有幸见证了他们的各种仪式。因此,我不会花很多时间来引用Sachs所记叙的内容,而会描述两个我自己的亲身经验。正是这些亲历的体验激发了我对这种形式的舞蹈的治疗效用的兴趣。

      One of these experiences was in Rio de Janiero, where the descendents of the African slaves have retained their spiritualism, and keep up their heritage of ritual practice which is treated with more or less permissiveness by the authorities. I will describe a week-end session of ritual possession, which I was able to witness.

      其中的一个经验是在里约热内卢发生的。在那里,非洲奴隶的后裔都保留着他们的灵性主义,并且保持着他们的定期举办仪式的传统。这些或多或少是被官方许可的。我将描述一场我亲眼见证的周末的附身仪式。

      The community had gathered in one of the tin sheds which served as a garage in everyday use. Eight drummers were lined up on the two opposite sides of the room, four on each side. In the middle, white robed members, men and women, were moving in parallel movement in front of the drummers. The drumming was persistently monotone on a 4/4 beat and the movements of the dances similarly monotone. In the center, between the two rows of dancers, a priestess, was throwing her arms in a constant rhythm upward and sideways, while her bare feet were stamping the earthen floor. Suddenly, she let go of her restraint, and threw herself into violent motion. Her whole body shook, her head was thrown about as if detached. The tempo of the drum and dancer increased, although their movements remained simple, unified and supportive. The priestess and the drummers accelerated their frantic tempo and intensity until a crescendo, at which point, the priestess fell to the floor. She remained there unmoving, while the drummers gradually decreased their sound and speed without, however, stopping.

      参加仪式的人群聚集在一个简陋的小屋里,平时这个小屋是作为车库使用的。在小屋里,八位鼓手面对面站在屋子两端,每端站四位。在屋子中间,是穿白色长袍的男人和女人。他们平行地站在鼓手前面伴随着鼓声舞动。鼓声以四四拍单一地持续着,舞者们的动作也同样单一。在中心,两排舞者之间,是一个女祭司,她以不变的节奏向上、向四周挥舞着她的手臂,同时她赤脚踩踏着泥质的地面。突然,她冲破限制,开始做激烈的动作。她全身震动,舞动头部,就像头部已经与身体分离。接着,鼓的节奏增快、舞动的幅度增加,但他们的动作依然简单、统一、有力量。女祭司增加了舞动的强度,鼓手加快了节奏的速度,直至高潮。而后,女祭司倒在地上。她静止不动,鼓手逐渐降低打鼓的声音、减慢打鼓的速度,至此,仪式告一段落。

      After a short pause, the whole dynamic sequence, was repeated. Each sequence could have lasted from a seemingly long 8-10 minutes. Each time the priestess awoke from her “swoon” with an expression on her face of serene happiness, it was as if she were reawakened to life.

      短暂的停顿过后,重复整个动态过程。每个过程看似要持续8-10分钟。每次女祭司从“昏迷”中醒来,脸上都会浮现出宁静幸福的表情,如同她的生命被唤醒了一般。

      This expression of utter happiness is occasionally witnessed on deeply religious people when they have just completed their worship, on people in love, on young people when they dance or sing rock, and on audiences at a concert. It can be recognized in daily living, if eyes are open to it and each other and the environment. Manifestations of ecstatic feelings can exist and are unconciously accepted, experienced and provide psychic nourishment. Thus, ecstasy and trance can occur at different degrees of emotional participation and on different levels, each originating in and causing different dynamic developments.

      这种全然幸福的表情偶尔可以在虔诚的人的脸上看到:刚刚完成礼拜的人,坠入爱河的人,跳舞或唱摇滚的青年人,欣赏音乐会的观众。如果把眼睛睁开,对这种全然的幸福、对他人和外界保持开放的心态,便可以在日常生活中察觉到这种幸福。保持开放,出神的状态就会出现,并会在不知不觉中被我们接受、经验,进而为我们提供精神养料。因此,出神状态和催眠状态会出现在情感参与的不同程度中,并存在等级差异,每个出发点都会导致不同的动态发展。

      The ecstasy and trance described above is the one most familiar to most, the one that is encountered in the primitive tribes of Africa and their decendants in the Americas. It also can be witnessed in the Orient, from the Tibetan shaman in the north, to the Indonesian cult-plays in the south.

      上文所述的出神和催眠为多数人所熟知,我所遇到的非洲原住民和他们在美洲的后裔便是如此。出神状态和催眠状态还可以在东方诸国得到见证,从北方的西藏僧人身上,到南方的印尼宗教表演中,我们都可以亲眼目睹这种状态。

      But there is a very different expression of trance evinced from the Whirling Dervishes, whose form for worship touches on certain developments in dance therapy. Under the ice white moon of the winter gray sky of Anatolian December, there can be heard an ancient voice that speaks in tones of gentleness of love for every creature of the earth. It is the “Ney”, the humble flute of the brotherhood of the Mevlevi dervishes, those ardent practitioners of the rite of turning, forever turning, to ecstasy- inducing music.

      但是有一种特别的催眠状态可以在跳回旋舞时显现出来,回旋舞的礼拜形式涉及到舞动疗法中的一些发展知识。在安那托利亚寒冬12月灰色天空的冷月下,可以听到一个古老的声音,说话的语调温柔亲切,满载对生灵万物的爱。那就是“奈伊笛”,是僧侣们使用的可以发出谦逊声音的长笛,那些热心的从业者,在回旋舞仪式中,不断流转起舞、出神——引领音乐。

      At first, the dervishes sit motionless while the music captivates their hearts. Stringed instruments, miniature drums too, now play along with the flute. The dervishes are seen rising to their feet. They bow and then proceed in dignified parade around the hall. A chanting falls upon the ears of those who watch while the members divest themselves of their capes. And now begins the strange and utterly beautiful whirling. The dervishes pivot with ease on their left foot. The right foot supports the turns. The right hand of each dervish is held high throughout the whirling, symbolizing their receiving spiritual enlightenment. The left hand is turned downwards, as if distributing that which has been received in this state of spiritual elevation.

      起初,僧侣坐着不动,任凭长笛声浸染他们的心灵。而后,弦乐器和微型鼓的声音随着长笛一起奏响。接着,僧侣们站起来。他们鞠躬,然后列队围绕会堂庄严地行进。诵唱声传入观众的耳朵,同时僧侣们脱去自己的斗篷。然后开始进行奇异的、非常美丽的旋转。僧侣们轻松地以左脚为中心进行旋转。右脚帮助旋转。每个僧人的右手自始至终都高高举起,象征着他们在接受心灵开悟。左手向下转动,仿佛一个撒播的动作,象征着已经开悟的状态。

      Strangely, the dervishes never stray from their appointed course. Some move in an inner circle, some in a larger one, while an older dervish moves in and out of the two circles -- all counterclockwise, representing the revolutions of the revolving stars and the moon. With the music becoming more and more hypnotic in its monotonous repetition, it becomes more and more compelling, bringing the dervish to a state of ecstasy, to their union with the universe, the purpose of their ritual.

      奇怪的是,僧侣们从未偏离原定的移动路线。一部分僧侣在小圈子里移动,一部分在较大的圈子里移动,而一个年长的僧人在两个圈子之间进进出出——所有人都逆时针方向移动,代表旋转的星星和月亮的公转。随着音乐单一的重复,乐声变得越来越具有催眠性,它变得越来越令人沉迷,使僧人们进入一种出神的状态,实现与宇宙的结合,这便是他们举行仪式的目的。

      Although their accompanying instruments repetitiously sound their monotony, there is a complete air of stillness prevailing, which permeates the viewers and suggests that the dancers are suspended in the air. Even at their highest moment of ecstasy, you are soundlessly in contact with the universe. Gradually, the intensity recedes, and slowly, very slowly, the revolutions become calmer and calmer, ending in the complete stillness of spirit and body.

      虽然他们伴着乐器重复地听着千篇一律的音乐,但那里有沉静的完美气氛,这气氛渗透到观众之中,这种渗透也促使舞者沉浸在这种气氛里。甚至,在出神的高峰时刻,你可以静静地与宇宙连结。渐渐地,出神的强度减弱,慢慢地,慢慢地,旋转变得越来越慢,最终结束于精神和身体的完全静止。

      To me, who has been using the turns therapeutically in their outward forms for some years already, it was a revelation. It not only proved something to me, but also led me on to greater resulting changes occurring.

      对我而言,使用回旋舞的舞蹈动作疗愈他人已有多年,并且并卓有成效,这是一件出乎意料的事。它不仅向我证明了一些东西,也让我发生更大的变化。

      Curt Sachs describes it as follows:Seventeen monks seated themselves in the circle, most of them rather aged, all of them wearing the tall felt headdress. On the platform a splendid old dervish began to repeat prayers from the Koran in a nasal voice. After a quarter of an hour a flute player relieved him with good, continuous improvising, occasionally accompanied by a second, playing a prolonged bass note. After another quarter of an hour the squatting dervishes began to join in with various motions of the body. Now the music becomes more provocative, three flutes and a violin taking over the melody, which shows clearly traces of the old Turkish. A tambourine, a couple of small kettle drums beat out the weirdest rhythms. Thirteen of the monks now rise and move slowly counter-clockwise in a circle. They walk solemnly. When a certain spot is reached, a dancer turns to the man behind him and both make low bows to each other. The music changes the Maqam and rhythm, and now they all throw off their cloaks. Ten of them are standing there in white cowls, one in black, one in greenish blue, one in gray. The others walk up to him, bow, and kiss him. Then the ten soar forth, spread their arms out horizontally like the wings of an airplane, and begin to whirl in such a manner that the many cowls worn one over another form a large bell around them. Four of the dervishes make up a small circle, six a large one, and as they whirl about constantly, the eldest in the black cowl moves slowly and countinuously between the two circles, again counter-clockwise. These old man with out-spread arms spun like tops for a full half hour. The whirl dance must be acknowledged as the most thrilling expression of the feminine power of conception. The whirling dervish, who extends his arms horizontally and turns his palms upwards, assumes, without wishing to, the gesture of taking, of opening. No fertilizing power streams forth from him, he himself awaits the generative force which takes possession of him, which removes the limitations of his body, extinguishes his consciousness, and pours the divine spirit into him. The whirl dance is the purest form of dance devotion.

      Curt Sachs是这样描述整个过程的:十七位僧人分别坐在在自己的圈子里,他们之中的大多数已是高龄,都头戴毡质冠巾。在台子上,是一位颇有成就的年老僧人,他用鼻音重复诵念《古兰经》进行祈祷。一刻钟后,一位长笛演奏者以虔诚的、连绵不断的即兴吹奏帮助这位僧人卸下忧虑,间或伴随着拉长的低沉笛音。又过了一刻钟,坐着的僧人们开始加入各种身体动作。而后,音乐变得更具煽动性,三位长笛演奏者和一位小提琴演奏者控制了整个音乐的旋律,这真切显现出了古老的土耳其文化的痕迹。就这样,一支手鼓、一对小定音鼓敲出了奇异的节奏。然后,十三位僧人起身,围成一个圈逆时针缓慢移动。他们庄严地移步。当某种特别的情境来临,一位舞者要转向身后的人,两人相对,深深鞠躬。接下来,乐曲改变了玛卡姆【Maqam:玛卡姆,一种结构宏大的大型套曲艺术】和节奏,他们都脱去身上的斗篷。然后其中的十位穿上白色蒙头斗篷站在那里,其他三位,一位穿黑色,一位穿蓝绿色,另一位穿灰色。其余的人走向他,弯腰亲吻他。然后那十位做向前飞舞的动作,如飞机的双翼般水平伸展双臂,并以这样的姿势旋转,许多蒙头斗篷被一个又一个人穿,僧侣们穿上斗篷旋转,就像一个大钟环绕周身。四位僧人组成一个小圈,六位组成一个大圈,他们不断地旋转,年纪最长的穿黑色斗篷的僧人缓慢移动,在两个圈之间逆时针旋转。这些长者可以伸展双臂旋转至多整整半个小时。旋转舞定会成为公认的最令人震惊的体现阴性力量的表达方式。旋转着的僧人,双臂水平伸展并且手心翻转朝上,呈现这样一种状态:卸下欲望,保持接收的、开放的姿态。没有富足的力量从他的身体向外流淌,他在等待自身可生的力量出现,等待那种可以消除身体局限、熄灭意识之火,可以灌注神圣精神到他身体的力量。回旋舞是舞动礼拜中最完美的一种形式。

      It must be understood that all seeking after, holding to, and emphasizing of the distortion is by definition contrary to nature, and furthermore that every dance and especially an astonishing, inconceivable performance. Here the dance severs the natural bonds of human posture and motion. In dizziness the dancer loses the feeling of body and of self; released from his body he conquers dizziness. Physicians who were present later verified for me the “Yoga” state of the dancing dervishes. The significance of the dance is apparently astral: the sun, the moon, and the revolving stars. There is no doubt that it is something primitive, preserved from a period thousands of years before Islam, inherited from the shamanism of central Asia.

      我们必须明白的是,所有探索、坚持,还有对变形的强调都显然与自然法则背道而驰,此外,每一支舞蹈,特别是令人惊讶的、不可思议的表演也是违背自然的。在这里,舞蹈服务于人类心境和动作的自然连结。在眩晕之中,舞者失去了对身体的感受力和对自我的觉察;从身体中释放自己,舞者才能克服眩晕。后来的治疗师为我们证实了舞动的僧人们的“瑜伽”状态的存在。舞蹈的重要意义犹如清晰可见的星际的存在:太阳、月亮和旋转星星。毫无疑问,它是原始的,是从伊斯兰教出现的千百年前留存下来的,继承了中亚的萨满主义。

      In Europe we have the “loss of self” motif clearly illustrated in the whirl dances of the Russian sects of the Molokani in Armenia: of the self-emasculated Skoptzi, and of those of the Khlisti. Carvings like the round of the angles in divine frenzy done by Agostino di Duccio in the fifteenth century are witness that this ecstasy is felt and understood also in western Europe.

      在欧洲,“自我迷失”,也就是“出神”这个主题在多种舞蹈中也有一定的体现。在十五世纪,欧洲人创造了一些含有出神状态的动作的舞蹈,这说明,并非只有东方人对出神有所了解,西欧人也对其有所觉察和理解。【最后这段。。。翻译表示很无力。。。】

      The circular turn, through its eternally continuing motion and static impulse, more than anything, allows the consciousness to withdraw, and permits an inward gaze and contemplation. How this can result in trance is the subject of a later section, in which I attempt to describe the findings of some psychiatrists and physiologists, who have given a scientific explanation of induction of hypnosis, self-hypnosis and trance. Surprisingly enough those findings have not been treated as frequently in the general medical literature as other physiological facts.

      呈圆周旋转,是通过持续不断的动态移动和静态驱力实现的,最重要的是,要让意识抽离身体,并进行对内的关注和觉察。这样做会使催眠状态在舞动的后一阶出现,我会试图叙述一些精神病学家和生理学家的研究结果,为催眠感应、自我催眠和催眠状态给出一个科学解释。令人惊讶的是这些研究结果常常不像其他生理研究结果一样被当作一般的医学文献看待。

      But first let me describe two cases demonstrating my use of the circular turn, and the ensuing ecstatic experience, as it has occurred during individual treatment and which has aroused my keen interest and instigated my research in this field.

      首先让我讲两个案例来记叙我对旋转疗法的使用以及继而发生的出神经验,这些经验发生在个体化治疗中,它们激发了我对这个领域的浓厚兴趣和在这个领域研究的热情。

      CASE C: was a young girl with well-to-do parents. Her Father was a lawyer, and Mother, a society woman. She was the oldest sibling who had never resolved the conflict of having had to yield her parent’s full attention to her younger sister. She thus overcompensated this unconscious hate by “ loving her ecstatically, ” and mustering her cooperation in opposing the parents. She thus vented her resentment and got back at them.

      案例一:有一个家境富裕的年轻女孩。她的父亲是一名律师,母亲是一位上流社会的女士。女孩是家里兄弟姐妹中最年长的一位,父母的全部注意力都集中在她的妹妹身上,她一直不得不屈服于这种情况,得不到解决。因此,女孩通过暗示自己“非常爱妹妹”的方式,给予这个无意识的恨过度的补偿,并召集妹妹合力反对父母的做法。从而发泄她的愤恨,然后又以良好的态度面对家人。

      The years went by, however, and her sister, growing into adolescence, became more interested in boys than in her. Without the sister’s involvement or the supporting love of her parents which she rejected, C. Was finding herself suddenly alone, facing her isolation. Leaving school prematurely she had to give her life some content both intellectually and emotionally. Without proper schooling she could only get manual jobs which could not possibly satisfy her. She sought emotional fulfillment in drugs and sexual relationships. Finally, through the advice of a friend, she came to dance therapy.

      然而,随着时间的推移,妹妹长大了,进入了青春期,变得对男孩子的兴趣比对她的更多,两人的关系逐渐疏离了。没有了妹妹的帮助,也失去了与她关系不融洽的父母的爱,女孩发现自己突然间变得很孤独,独自承受着与世隔绝的感觉。由于过早地离开学校,女孩不得不给自己的生活一些知识上和情感上的满足。没有接受过完整的学校教育,她只能得到一些做体力工作的机会,这样的工作不可能让她感到满足。于是她开始吸毒、乱性,以求情感满足。最终,经由一个朋友建议,她来到我这里进行舞动治疗。

      Her movement and my Diagnostic Tests revealed her most important emotional problem was manifested physically through the rigidity of her back and the general tension of her joints. Her back was “proud and she was not going to give in to anything or any-body”, it was saying. She liked to dance though and when asked to improvise, chose a rock-record to which she gyrated without any real sexual expression. Her pelvis was practically immobile, with the movements mainly in the knees and twisting shoulders. Apparently her frozen rigidity also prevented her from experiencing real feelings in any other areas.

      Her sexuality then, was only a boredom pervaded because she was only alive on the surface. Not having found herself, there “was no one there” to make contact, so to speak.

      在她的动作中,还有在我对她的的诊断测试里显示,这个女孩最大的情感问题可以通过她背部的僵化度和一般状态下关节的张力体现出来。她的背部是“傲立的”,是僵直的,这意味着她不会屈服于任何事物或任何人。虽然她喜欢跳舞,但是在要求她即兴发挥的时候,她选择做一个rock-record的动作,她的旋转没有表现出真正的女性特质。她的胯部几乎没有动,舞姿主要是膝盖动作和肩膀扭动。显然,她僵直的身体也妨碍她去体验真情实感,那些除了毒品和性关系以外的任何其他领域的真实情感。当时,她追求的是性快感,单调乏味充斥着她,因为那样只是活于皮囊。可以这么说,她还没有找到真正的自己,没有与真正的自己连结。

      Our first physical approach to treatment was relaxation and breathing. This continued for a considerable time, accompanied by verbal exchange on the emotional issues as they arose, provoked by the body work.

      She fought breathing and feeling with determination not accepting the relaxed inhalation and exhalation, the “ giving over ” to the natural functions of her body.

      我们首先进行放松、深呼吸,让身体通往疗愈之路。这一步要持续相当长的时间,并在被身体动作引导、唤起时,伴随关于情感问题的言语交流。她坚决抗拒深呼吸,抗拒感情,拒绝接受放松的吸气与呼气,“停止”她身体自然功能的发挥。

      The movement diagnosis tests, as they were gradually given in full, further revealed character traits supportive to the therapeutic goals. The tests were rated 0-5 with 5 the highest. She had:

      Strong dynamic drive -------------- 4

      courage ------------------------------- 4

      Endurance ----------------------------4

      Self-assurance or ego image ------ 5

      Her weakness was:

      coordination ------------------------ 2

      emotional state --------------------- 2

      control of drive --------------------- 2

      动作诊断测试可以逐步全面地、深层次地揭示性格特征,以帮助我们实现治疗目标。测试被评为0-5五个等级,5为最高等级。以下为女孩的测试结果:

      动态驱力 --------------------------- 4

      勇气 --------------------------------- 4

      耐力 --------------------------------- 4

      自信度或自我形象 ----------------5

      她的弱点是:

      协调性 ------------------------------ 2

      情绪状态 --------------------------- 2

      内驱力掌控 ------------------------ 2

      This paper does not permit a very detailed description of the body work applied for releasing the tensions which she had used to uphold her defensive structure. But the program consisted a great extent of relaxing the back and subsequently working on all movements that flowed through the whole structure in a successive development. The specialized animal coordination-exercise consisting of a magnified wheel-like motion, stemming from the sacrum, became a constant stand-by in every session. As a result of this program, coordination improved. As coordination improved, the joy of the body in motion grew, followed by the joy and satisfaction of controlling this body.

      本文不便详述此次舞动治疗中缓解女孩紧张感的过程,那种维持她防御机制的紧张感。但可以与大家分享的是,整个过程包含了大量的背部放松,并把这种放松的感觉融入到她所有的动作中,使之持续存在,贯穿始终。这种专业的动物的协调运动由夸张的轮状动作构成,源于骶骨的动作随后变成每一个仪式中的持续律动。经过这样的动作,协调性会得到提高,从而令人体会到运动的愉悦,继而感觉到掌控身体的快乐和满足。

      At this point we started the monotonous turns. We had often used primitive rhythms, their active dynamics being less threatening to her energetic personality. For the passive-active turns of the dervishes , a new relaxation and willingness to give over, would be needed. A new courage had to be present--the courage to give in, and to face inward.

      我们开始单一的转体动作。我们充分运用原始的节奏,这种节奏有着积极的动态美,无伤于那生机蓬勃的特性。对于僧侣们被动的转体动作而言,应该以一种全新的放松且自发的态度让身体沉静下来。一种新生的勇气将被展现——勇于呈现真正的自己,直面内心。

      So we started the turns. Very much as the dervishes do, as described above, without the ritual, of course. C. turned and struggled. At first, step followed step, consciously, physically, determined. This was another plateau to be conquered. The movement was broken, the body divided in two, with the legs "doing their job", and the torso and arms resisting the imperative circular motion. Because of this resistance against the flow, she became violently nauseous. This was also a psychosomatic method of getting out of the uncomfortable demands made upon her courage.

      我们开始进行旋转。如同前文提到的,这动作恰如僧人一样,只是少了那些宗教仪式而已。C开始转体、全力舞动。一开始,舞步有条不紊,这舞步发自于意志、身体,并且笃定。这是另一座等待征服的高峰。之后,动作突变,身体一分为二,双腿仍在克尽其责,而躯干和双臂却在抗拒那势在必行的圆周动作。因为出现了对舞蹈程序的这种抗拒,她出现了强烈的恶心现象。而这同样也是一种疗愈身心的方法,让她凭借自己的勇气来摆脱这种令人不适的指令。

      Turns were modified to changing sides every 8 counts, which involved seven steps to the left with 2 one count pauses, and then seven steps to the right with 2 pauses on 8. This prevented nausea and permitted a conscious control of the turn. It also allowed for a conscious choice of tempo and degree of turn; one could make the seven steps in one, two or three rotations. Although there was no outright spotting as in the ball "chained", there was a slight mental note made of the moment of spatial change. Patiently and diligently we attended to the physical, technical perfection of the controlled turns, session after session.

      旋转动作在一个八拍完成后就要换边了。八拍中包含七个向左的舞步和用来暂停的两个一拍,紧跟着又是七个向右的舞步和用来暂停的两拍。这样能够克服恶心感,使得人体得以有意识地控制转体的动作。有意识地改变节拍和转体的角度也是可以的;舞者可以用1-3个转圈的动作来完成上述7个舞步。虽然没有明显的表现,但空间改变的时刻已经被微妙地记录于心。以耐心且勤勉的态度,我们一次又一次地进行着这种旋转动作,并用身体和技巧对其进行完善。

      One day, as we were just starting, without any words, C. continued the turn without changing sides, as if she were saying "enough of this" and "of course I can do it". "Let us get on with it". She turned and turned, faster and faster, almost as in anger, certainly in ecstasy, until the centrifugal force became too strong and she slid to the floor, rolling a few turns as she gained support from the surface. Her expression was beatific, and no words were exchanged until she regained her composure and said: "That was a trip".

      What constitutes a trip? Is it a losing or finding of oneself? Is it perhaps both, first losing in order to find?

      So it seems.

      Life cannot be fully lived without ecstasy.

      So it seems.

      On this “trip”, C. found herself, got in touch with a part of herself heretofore unknown.

      有天,我们刚刚要开始,C一言不发地开始转体,一直没有换边,仿佛她是在说“够了”,“我当然能做到”,“那就做吧”。她不停地转圈,越来越快,就好像是在生气一般,当然,也可以称之为出神。直到离心力变得过于强大,她跌倒在地,在地上打了几个滚,好像她从地面得到了支撑一般。她的表情是喜悦的,她始终没有开口交流,直到她重新归于沉静才开口说到:“这种体验太棒了。”

      怎样才能拥有这种体验?是自我的迷失抑或是回归自我?是否是两者兼而有之,先迷失,继而回归?

      似乎是这样的。

      如果没有出神状态,人生是残缺的。

      似乎是这样的。

      在这种“体验”中,C找到了自我,和从前未曾发觉的那一部分的自我进行了连结。

      The treatment does not always proceed that smoothly of course. My second case presentation is more complicated and lasted much longer. In face, from time to time we still meet for reinforcement in a crisis -- as they come up.

      当然,这种治疗并非都是这么一帆风顺。我第二个病例介绍所涉及的情况就更为复杂,持续的时间也更长。当危机来临的时候,我们偶尔还会见面来竖立度过危机的勇气。

      CASE K: was about 18 when she came to therapy. Daughter of divorced parents, with one sibling, a younger brother who also had psychological problems. A school drop- out like the previous case, she was quite heavily on drugs, suicidal at times, defiant and negative. I would not have accepted her, even with the supervision available to me -- if I had not been informed that she had refused all professional help for years. Apparently the dance aspects of our therapy was more palatable to her, and she agreed to come at the advice of a friend.

      案例K:当她过来治疗的时候,大约只有18岁,父母已经离异,还有一个弟弟,他的弟弟有心理方面的问题。就像之前的一个案例一样,她经常逃学,吸食大量药物,有时候还会自杀,比较叛逆,也很消极。我本来不想接她入诊,就算是我有指导权——如果我不是被告知她几年以来几乎拒绝了所有的专业帮助。显然,我们治疗中的舞蹈部分更适合她,她在朋友的建议之下,同意接受治疗。

      Thin, unphysical, stooped over, and spindly legged, she appeared at the studio. One wondered how she managed to put one foot in front of the other. The body swayed back and forth; even when standing still, there was no contact between arms and torso- not to mention the ground. The emotional expression of that body was nil. I have seldom seen emotional starvation more clearly demonstrated. Although a vague rapport of sympathy sprang up, she had to be approached with a highly delicate touch, as one does with a dog that has been whipped and shies away when reached out for to be stroked.

      她出现在工作室的时候,显得非常消瘦、佝偻着身体,两条腿非常细。大家都怀疑她是如何能够迈腿走路的。她的身体会前后摇摆;就算是站着不动的时候也是如此,在胳膊与身体之间没有什么接触的地方,更不要提接触地面了。她的身体没有表达出任何情感。我几乎从来都没有看到过像她这样毫无表情的人。尽管有隐约的同情涌上心头,但是必须要非常小心才能够靠近她,就像是人们接近一只被揍过的狗,当你伸手想要抚摸她的时候,它会害羞地避开一样。

      The first year the sessions were sporadic. More often than not she stayed away, asleep at home, or came more than one-half hour late. But we hung on, there were no reproaches, and slowly trust developed. Most of the work until then had been solely the physical aspects of dancing. The diagnosis tests were administered as part of dance technique without creating the nervous tension of “performing”.

      The results of the tests were as follows:

      degree of dynamic drive ------------- 0

      control of drive ------------------------- 1

      coordination ---------------------------- 1

      endurance ------------------------------ 1

      courage --------------------------------- 0

      ego image ------------------------------ 1

      emotional state ------------------------ 5

      在第一年,对话非常少。她经常会离开,在家睡觉,或者迟到半个多小时。但是我们还是坚持下去了,她不再责备我,慢慢地我们之间培养除了信任感。直到那时,大部分的工作都是舞蹈方面的。诊断测试是作为舞动技术的一部分进行的,而不会造成“表演”的紧张情绪。

      测试的结果如下:

      动态驱动的程度-------------- 0

      驱动的控制-------------------- 1

      协调----------------------------- 1

      耐力----------------------------- 1

      勇气----------------------------- 0

      自我形象----------------------- 1

      情绪状态----------------------- 5

      Gradually her legs became stronger, opening up an outlet for her aggressive feelings. Primitive rhythms, stamping and kicking also gave her a sense of confidence.

      逐渐地,她的大腿开始变得更有力,激起了她的上进心。原始的节奏、踢踏也让她培养了一种自信心。

      One day she went back to school; This was the first breakthrough. For two years she studied and took her degree while still in therapy. Three years went by. Attendance was irregular but she always came back. It became more and more apparent that K. was unable to feel herself, and therefore no other person either. Intellectually she realized that being with her fellowman was a necessary party of her living; yet, it was impossible to recognize any stirrings in herself for anybody. Life was dull, only drugs brought her high: “Drugs make you feel yourself, drugs give you fantasy”.

      有一天,她回到了学校;这是第一次重大突破。她学习了2年,在她还在治疗的时候,她拿到了学历。三年过去了。上课并不怎么规律,但是她一直会回来。越来越明显的一点就是K无法感知到她自己,因此,也无法感知到其他人。从智力上来说,她意识到与她的同胞在一起是其生活不可或缺的一部分,但是在她内心并不能激起对任何人的感觉。生活非常无趣,只有药物才能让她感到很嗨:“药物能够让你感觉到你自己,药物会给你幻觉。”

      Movement in space, and the expression of spatial directions had been a part of the sessions as our work developed. Directions from backwards to forward, in withdrawal and aggression, evasions sideways, all these had been experienced.

      随着我们课程的发展,在空间中的动作,以及空间方向的表达是对话的一部分。她体验了从后往前的方向,后退与前进,以及往旁边躲避。

      How to bring about the inward move, the facing of self? was a question I asked myself. The circle in its repetition allows the inward gaze while it simulaneously gives the support of its balance. We started the runs and it made her “feel high”!!! Again and again she came to sessions and wanted to turn. We did. She started turning at home. Dizziness disappeared. Her control over the turns increased. She could turn slowly, fast, with the body high, arms out, or low, knees bent. She was thrilled by the new experience of herself and her new control.

      我曾问过自己这样一个问题: 如何面对自我,实现内在变化。重复循环让对内凝视成为可能,同时重复循环支持平衡。我们开始移动,这使她“振奋”!她一次又一次参加聚会并希望旋转。我们做到了。她开始在家里旋转,头晕的症状消失了。她对旋转的控制能力提高了。她能保持高度,或伸出手臂,或放低手臂,或膝盖弯曲,缓慢或迅速旋转。这种全新的体验和控制力让她兴奋不已。

      In her life she became successful in her jobs, started earning money, and reaching out to people, although yet unable to sustain her friendships. This was her second breakthrough, which has bearing on this subject.

      在生活中,她在事业上取得成功,开始赚钱,为人们提供帮助,虽然她还是无法保持友谊。这是她的第二次突破,已经涉及此问题。

      Here, all earlier knowledge of dance history comes together. The “Medicine-Man-Priest” takes care of the tribal life, both with regard to body and soul life. The primitives have always known that the body is a unit of the physical, mental and emotional. Only now are some learning the value of approaching emotions through the body and learning the method of doing so. The medicine man can still be learned from while at the same time the scientific analysis of their healing process can be delved into in order to meet the demands of professionalism. I am therefore hoping, by presenting these findings, to initiate an interest and desire for delving into further research while making use of the turns as a part of our dance tools.

      舞蹈史上所有的知识在这里汇聚在一起。 “医巫-牧师”照顾部落里的生命,不论是身体还是灵魂的生命。原始人一直都知道人的身体是身体、心理和情绪的统一体。直到现在一些人才开始学习通过身体来调节情绪的价值和方法。人们仍然可以向巫医学习,同时,深入研究、科学地分析他们的治疗过程,以达到专业要求。因此,我希望通过展示这些发现,提起人们的兴趣及渴望,进行深入研究,同时充分利用旋转作为我们舞动工具的一部分。

      In each case of perfected turning the result was a finding of self, a realization of a center, a real discovery of strength and power. Being a non-verbal experience, little had to be discussed; the new knowledge went into the consciousness of daily living, and offered not a secret place, but a very private one where one could retire to be renewed, and reassemble ones scattered thoughts, or even battered emotions.

      每一次完美旋转都能找到一个自我,找到一个中心,发现真正的力量和能力。作为一次非语言经历,不必谈论太多;新知识走进日常生活的意识,没有提供一个秘密的地方,而是一个非常私人的、一个人可能退隐并重新获得生命力的地方,在那里重新组装那些零碎的想法甚至受虐的情绪。

      And now, before I go into the more scientific description of this process of trance and ecstatic dancing, which is the real reason for this paper, I would like to shortly report yet another recent incident in dance therapy that startlingly demonstrates the inner process occurring during the monotonous turns.

      我写这篇文章是为了科学地描述这令人着迷的催眠与出神舞动,而在这之前,现在我想叙述舞动疗法中近来发生的一件事,它惊人地演示了单调旋转发生的内部过程。

      CASE D: A case of hysteria, D. had an early history of over protection and tantrums, she had enough intelligence to unconsciously recognize that she was getting away with too much, and that her concept of the world’s obligation to her interferred with her relationships. She was alone and utterly lonesome. The event I am describing here, she came to the session in great fury over the frustrations of the day. Instead of getting depressed, she got angry. “How could ‘they’ do this to her” ? I suggested to turn. She did not oppose the suggestion, but her legs were stamping out the steps, her arms flayed around, and her teeth were clenched. We had no accompaniment; any overt persuasion could only have increased the anger. But the monotony and the turning motion had its amazing effect on her mood. Soon one could see her turns becoming round and smoother, the arms were rounder to fit into the whole circular shape the body was forming, the legs stopped the ground, but gently hugged it.

      案例D:此案例是关于歇斯底里症的,D在早年阶段有过度防御和暴躁症的经历,她有足够的悟性,无意中,她意识到,其实自己经侥幸逃脱了太多,她感到这个世界应该对她负责,这种想法影响了她的人际关系。因此她独自一人,十分寂寞。我要说的是,她来到这里时,带着当天对于挫败感的暴怒。她没有沮丧,而是愤怒。“没有人应该对你负责”,我回应道。她没有反对我的回应,而是双脚疯狂踏步,双臂猛烈挥动,咬紧牙齿。我们没有伴奏,任何露骨的劝说才有可能增加她的愤怒。但千篇一律的、回转的动作对她的情绪有神奇影响。很快,她的旋转化为一个圆形、变得流畅,双臂划的圆与身体旋转形成的圆形融为一体,双脚停止跺踏地面,变为温柔的青踩。

      I waited for her own desire to end. After 15minutes-quarter of an hour - the turns slowed down gradually, and like a clock running out, stopped. After a long pause and her not looking anywhere in particular, I heard: “I feel much calmer now”.

      我等待她在想结束时结束。45分钟后,她渐渐放慢旋转的速度,像钟表转针般,慢慢地,停止了动作。在长时间的停顿后,她没有把目光放在特定的地方,她说:“现在我觉得更加平静了。”

      I have up to now intentionally refrained from scientific language. The subject being discussed and utilized in dance therapy techniques is of those indefinable elements which are more at home in poetry and art. This does not mean that it cannot be explained scientifically, however, and when so doing, scientific language has its place.

      What is desired to possible to be explained is:

      How is it possible to physically induce mental changes? How is it possible to change an angry mood into a calm one by having the body repeat certain movements? What kind of movements possess these self-inducing qualities?

      我一直有意避免使用科学术语。因为舞动治疗所讨论和应用的技法包涵了种种只能用诗歌和艺术定义的因素。

      我们需要解释的问题有:

      生理变化怎么能引发精神变化?身体重复某项动作,为什么能将愤怒转为平静?什么样的动作包涵这些自我引起(self-inducing)的因素?

      From time to time it has been suggested that these changes involve subcortical areas of the brain and that they influence its functioning, similar to hypnosis, or self-trance. One scientific research study done in this area which has the most bearing on dance as a therapeutic tool, is done by Dr. Akstein, a psychiatrist, who has written extensively on the induction and functioning of hypnosis. His article, “The Induction of Hypnosis?” seems American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, Volume VII, April, 1965 to describe better than other research sources I have investigated, the reflex function of the brain when exposed to specific stimuli. In fact, his reflexological theory of hypnosis is a scientific interpretation of the hypnotic analygous to trance states. For that reason I shall dwell on his decription of the hypnotic phenomenology.

      有些理论认为,变化受大脑皮质层下区域影响,与催眠或出神相似。Dr. Akstein介绍催眠与研究其作用的着作甚多,他在该领域的一项科学实验与将舞蹈作为治疗手段关系最为密切。他的文章“催眠的介绍”曾发表在美国临床催眠期刊杂志1965年4月期上( American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, Volume VII, April, 1965 )。这篇文章对大脑在特定刺激下的反射功能介绍是我读过的所有研究中比较好的。事实上,他的催眠反射逻辑理论从科学的角度讲催眠与出神状态类比。因此,我认可他对催眠现象学的描述。

      In order to understand the general term of the reticular system, a simplified description will be used. The reticular formation, “formation reticulars,” has the function of ascending and descending activation, that is: (1) Activation coming from the periphery, to activate the cortex for the reception of sensorial and viscero-vegetative stimuli called “ascending activation” and (2) Activation originating in the cerebral cortex called “descending activation”.

      我们将用尽可能简单的描述一帮助大家对这一网状系统的整体理解。这种网状结构,“结构网”(formation reticulars),能发挥上升或下降的激活作用(the function of ascending and descending activation)。也就是说(1)从外围来的激活(activation),使大脑皮层接收感官和内脏的生长刺激(activate the cortex for the reception of sensorial and viscero-vegetation stimuli), 这叫上升激活作用(ascending activation)(2)起源于大脑皮层的激活作用,叫做下降激活作用。

      The muscles are endowed with special receptors: the neuromuscular spindles responsible for the muscular sense. Thus, at the level of the muscles, tendons, ligaments and articular casules, sensitive and selective organs continually inform the central nervous system about tonus, and position of the muscular effectors. It is these impulses then which, originating in the neruo-muscular spindles activate the reticular formation, involving the whole system of ascending and descending stimuli with all the ramifications.

      肌肉具有特殊的感受器,主管肌肉感受的神经肌肉纺锤体( neuromuscular spindles )。因此,在肌肉等级,腱,韧带,关节膜,感觉和选择器官,不断向中枢系统传达紧张感,与肌肉效应器的位置。这些起源于神经-肌肉纺锤体的冲动激活结构网,包括整个系统的向上与向下刺激及所有的分支.

      By limiting the stimuli through decreasing the alerting state of this system, one limits cortical excitation. The consequence is the diffusion of the cortex inhibition (or defense, as may be, especially in wakefulness). In the ensuing relaxation of muscular tonus, through the modification of the muscular sense, one feels as if one were floating, sinking, or weightless.

      通过控制刺激,降低系统的警觉性(alerting state),人们可以控制大脑皮层的兴奋程度(cortical excitation), 结果是大脑皮层抑制的扩散(the diffusion of the cortex inhibition), (或者防御,尤其是觉醒)。紧接着是肌肉紧张的放松,通过缓和肌肉感受,人们会感觉到自己漂浮,下沉,或失重。

      The understanding of the above facts demonstrates its importance for use in emotional tension which, according to psycho-motor principles, parallels muscular tension, (on which psychomotor diagnosis tests have been based).

      理解了以上事实,我们就能看出运用在情感紧张时运用催眠的重要性。这种状态,根据心理动力(psycho-motor )原则,与肌肉紧张相似。(这是心理动力诊断的基础)

      The subcortical centers determine the active state of the brain and consequently change the organisms relationship with the environment. However, if there is an excessive demand on the cortex, if there is too much pressure from life, the structures of inferior regulation become exposed to exceptional tension, causing discoordination and vegetative disturbances. This happens not only through too much tension, but also when tension occurs over a long period. It happens in the traumatic neuroses and also in fatigue neuroses. It has been known for a long time that suppression, interruption, interoception, and/or exteroception may lead to sleep. This can be secured from the periphery. Limiting the stimuli or creating a certain kind of stimuli, a great rest of the reticular substance of the cortical tonus can be produced resulting in the decreased “wakefulness”.

      大脑皮层下中心决定了大脑活跃状态,因此改变了有机体与环境的关系。但是,如果大脑皮层有过度需求,比如如果生活中积累了过多压力,次级规则的结构(the structure of inferior regulation) 就暴露在过度压力中。这会造成不协调和生长性紊乱(discoordination and vegetative disturbance)。这不仅会由过度紧张引起,也会由长期紧张引起。神经损伤(traumatic neuroses)与神经疲惫(fatigue neuroses)都会引起这种现象。人们早就知道压抑,扰乱(interruption),interoception, exteroception (两个词的翻译待询问老师后确定)可以导致嗜睡。这也可以从外沿被确定。限制刺激因素或创造刺激因素,会产生大部分剩余由大脑皮层紧张(cortical tonus)产生的网状物,这会造成“觉醒”程度的降低。

      Rhythmic, monotonous and weak stimuli will produce an easier exhaustion or rest of the reticular formation (both ascending and descending functions) through “habituation;” that is, the sensory stimuli lose their meaning through repetition. The thinking process become eliminated and the body falls asleep.

      节奏单调,力量弱小的刺激会通过"习惯化"(habituation)产生较低程度的疲惫(easier exhaustion)或其它的网状结构(reticular formation)(由上升也有下降功能)。也就是说,感官刺激会因为重复失去意义。思考过程被跳过,身体进入睡眠状态。

      The same result can be achieved through pharmacological agents--depressing or supressing momentarily the transmission of excitation. Drugs and their uses have been broadly treated in medicine and sociology. They have their use in the appropriate cases. But what about the trance and ecstatic dance, where similar processes facilitate both the rest and discovery of internal, emotional functions, without side effects? This has not yet received the attention it deserves.

      用药物也可以取得相同的效果——暂时抑郁或压制兴奋的传递。医学和社会学广泛研究了药物的作用。他们在适当的情况下可以发挥作用。但出神状态和狂喜的舞蹈呢?这种状态下,相似的过程既激起了一部分内在情感功能,也压制了一部分这种功能,而且没有副作用?人们对这一方面的关注还不够多。

      Pavlov visualized the importance of emotion to the phenomenon of suggestion. Suggestion and self-suggestion are the concentration of excitation at one site of its representation. It can be brought about in 3 different ways (1) through emotions (subcortical in origin), (2) through external stimulation (that is what all dance therapies are doing in one form or another) or (3) through internal connections of associations, (mental processes).

      Pavlov 视觉化了情感对这种回应(suggestion)现象的重要性。回应和自我回应是这种显现(representation)中兴奋的集中。有三种方式可以引发这种现象(1)通过感情(起源于大脑皮层下)(2)通过外在刺激(也就是舞动治疗师通过各种方式在做的事情)。(3)通过内在联想的联系( connections of associations)(精神过程)

      In every suggestive manifestation, hetero, self-hypnotic, or spiritualistic trances, ecstasy of the dance, religion, music, even beauty of nature or an art object, the emotional element is of primary importance. Rhythm plays a great part in hypnosis with the monotone repetitiousness. Rhythm is the stimulus and organizer, the basic order which allows transgression without losing the self. It is not only auditory, but become a living element within the body. The rhythms of the primitive peoples, Africa, Asia and the near east cultures, the dervishes and the American Indian, are all intended for movement, absorption, stimulus, and, through the effects on the reticular formation, for influence on emotional life towards homeostasis and health. The medicine man and the priest have known this from ancient times to the present.

      因此,在每种能够产生回应的展现中,比如自我催眠,或灵魂层面的出神,舞蹈,音乐,宗教的狂喜,甚至是艺术品和自然的美,感情因素都是最重要的。节奏发挥刺激和组织的功能,这种基本秩序既允许对一般规则的违反,又不会让人失去自我。它不仅通过听觉获得,更会成为融入身体本身,成为鲜活生命的一部分。那些古老民族的节奏,包括亚洲,非洲,以及其他东方文化,甚至伊斯兰教神秘主义与美洲印第安人,他们的文化都围绕着这一系列的动作,投入(absorption)和刺激,而且,通过网状结构(reticular formation)的影响,也围绕着情感生活的体内平衡与健康。从古至今的医生和牧师都明白这点。

      It is my hope that I have raised an important question and that I have opened up a field of concrete understanding of what dance therapists may be doing. And now that the knowledge of the body in motion has been acquired, it is hoped that further study and research will be undertaken in the area of the body’s emotion.

      因此,我希望以上提出的问题有一定重要性,也希望可以帮助大家对舞动治疗师这一职业有一个具体理解。既然现在人们都对身体动作的影响有了一定的了解,我希望人们对身体情感这一领域还会有进一步的研究。

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